People's Republic Of China Trade Relations Agreement
AGREEMENT ON TRADE RELATIONS
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Then Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China;
Acting in the spirit of the Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China;
Desiring to enhance friendship between both peoples;
Wishing to develop further economic and trade relations between both countries on the basis of the principles of equality and mutual benefit as well as nondiscriminatory treatment;
Have agreed as follows:
1. The Contracting Parties undertake to adopt all appropriate measures to create the most favorable conditions for strengthening, in all aspects, economic and trade relations between the two countries so as to promote the continuous, long-term development of trade between the two countries.
2. In order to strive for a balance in their economic interest, the Contracting Parties shall make every effort to foster the mutual expansion of their reciprocal trade and to contribute, each by its own means, to attaining the harmonious development of such trade.
3. Commercial transactions will be effected on the basis of contracts between firms, companies and corporations and trading organizations of the two countries. They will be concluded on the basis of customary international trade practice and commercial considerations such as price, quality, delivery and terms of payment.
1. With a view to establishing their trade relations on a nondiscriminatory basis, the Contracting Parties shall accord each other most-favored-nation treatment with respect to products originating in or destined for the other Contracting Party, i.e. any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity they grant to like products originating in or destined for any other country or region, in all matters regarding:
(A) Customs duties and charges of all kinds applied to the import, export, re-export or transit of products, including the rules, formalities and procedures for collection of such duties and charges;
(B) Rules formalities and procedures concerning customs clearance, transit, warehousing and transshipment of imported and exported products;
(C) Taxes and other internal charges levied directly or indirectly on imported or exported products or services;
(D) All laws, regulations and requirements affecting all aspects of internal sale purchase, transportation, distribution or use of imported products; and
(E) Administrative formalities for the issuance of import and export licenses.
2. In the event either Contracting Party applies quantitative restrictions to certain products originating in or exported to any third country or region, it shall afford to all like products originating in or exported to the other country treatment which is equitable to that afforded to such third country or region.
3. The Contracting Parties note, and shall take into consideration in the handling of their bilateral trade relations, that, at its current state of economic development, China is a developing country.
4. The principles of Paragraph 1 of this Article will be applied by the Contracting Parties in the same way as they are applied under similar circumstances under any multilateral trade agreement to which either Contracting Party is a party on the date of entry into force of this Agreement.
5. The Contracting Parties agree to reciprocate satisfactorily concessions with regard to trade and services, particularly tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, during the term of this Agreement.
For the purpose of promoting economic and trade relations between their two countries, the Contracting Parties agree to;
A. Accord firms, companies and corporations and trading organizations of the other Party treatment no less favorable than is afforded to any third country or region;
B. Promote visits by personnel, groups and delegations from economic, trade and industrial circles; encourage commercial exchanges and contacts; and support the holding of fairs, exhibitions and technical seminars in each other's country;
C. Permit and facilitate, subject to their respective laws regulations and in accordance with physical possibilities, the stationing of representatives, or the establishment of business offices, by firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations of the other Party in its own territory; and
D. Subject to their respective laws and regulations and physical possibilities, further support trade promotions and improve all conveniences, facilities and related services for the favorable conduct of business activities by firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations of the two countries, including various facilities in respect of office space and residential housing, telecommunications, visa issuance, internal business travel, customs formalities for entry and re-export of personal effects, office articles and commercial samples, and observance of contracts.
The Contracting Parties affirm that government trade offices contribute importantly to the development of their trade and economic relations. They agree to encourage and support the trade promotion activities of these offices. Each party undertakes to provide facilities as favorable as possible for the operation of these offices in accordance with their respective physical possibilities.
1. Payments for transactions between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China shall either be effected in freely convertible currencies mutually accepted by firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations of the two countries, or made otherwise in accordance with agreements signed by and between two parties to the transaction. Neither Contracting Party may impose restrictions on such payment except in time of declared national emergency.
2. The Contracting Parties agree, in accordance with their respective laws, regulations and procedures, to facilitate the availability of official export credits on the most favorable terms appropriate under the circumstances for transactions in support of economic and technological projects and products between firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations of the two countries. Such credits will be the subject of separate arrangements by the concerned authorities of the two Contracting Parties.
3. Each Contracting Party shall provide on the basis of most-favored-nation treatment, and subject to its respective laws and regulations, all necessary facilities for financial, currency and banking transactions by nationals, firms, companies and corporations and trading organizations of the other Contracting Party on terms as favorable as possible. Such facilities shall include all required authorizations for international payments, remittances and transfers, and uniform application of rates of exchange.
4. Each Contracting Party will look with favor towards participation by financial institutions of the other country in appropriate aspects of banking services related to international trade and financial relations. Each Contracting Party will permit those financial instituitions of the other country established in its territory to provide such services on a basis no less favorable than that accorded to financial institutions of other countries.
1. Both Contracting Parties in their trade relations recognize the importance of effective protection of patents, trademarks and copyrights.
2. Both Contracting Parties agree that on the basis of reciprocity, legal or natural persons of either Party may apply for registration of trademarks and acquire exclusive rights thereto in the territory of the other Party in accordance with its laws and regulations.
3. Both Contracting Parties agree that each Party shall seek, under its laws and with due regard to international practice, to ensure to legal or natural persons of the other Party protection of patent and trademark equivalent to the patent and trademark protection correspondingly accorded by the other party.
4. Both Contracting Parties shall permit and facilitate enforcement of provisions concerning protection of industrial property in contracts between firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations of their respective countries, and shall provide means, in accordance with respective laws, to restrict unfair competition involving unauthorized use of such rights.
5. Both Contracting Parties agree that each Party shall take appropriate measures, under its laws and regulations and with due regard to international practice, to ensure to legal or natural persons of the other Party protection of copyrights equivalent to the copy right protection correspondingly accorded by the other Party.
1. The Contracting Parties shall exchange information on any problem that may arise from their bilateral trade, and shall promptly hold friendly consultations to seek mutually satisfactory solutions to such problem. No action shall be taken by either Contracting Party before such consultations are held.
2. However, if consultations do not result in a mutually satisfactory solution within a reasonable period of time, either Contracting Party may take such measures as it deems appropriate. In an exceptional case where a situation does not admit any delay, either Contracting Party may take preventive or remedial action provisionally, on the condition that consultation shall be effected immediately after taking such action.
3. When either Contracting Party takes measures under this Article, it shall ensure that the general objectives of this Agreement are not prejudiced.
1. The Contracting Parties encourage the prompt and equitable settlement of any dispute arising from or in relation to contracts between their respective firms, companies and corporations, and trading organizations, through friendly consultation, conciliation or other mutually acceptable means.
2. If such disputes cannot be settled promptly by any one of the above-mentioned means, the parties to dispute may have recourse to arbitration for settlement in accordance with provisions specified in their contracts or other agreements to submit to arbitration. Such arbitration may be conducted by an arbitration institution in the United States of America, the People's Republic of China, or a third country. The arbitration rules of procedure of the relevant arbitration institution are applicable, and the arbitration institution are applicable, and the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law recommended by the United Nations or other international arbitration rules, may also be used where acceptable to the parties to the dispute and to the arbitration institution.
3. Each Contracting Party shall seek to ensure that arbitration awards are recognized and enforced by their competent authorities where enforcement is sought, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
The provisions of this Agreement shall not limit the right of either Contracting Party to take any action for the protection of its security interests.
1. This Agreement shall come into force on the date on which the Contracting Parties have exchanged notifications that each has completed the legal procedure necessary for this purpose, and shall remain in force for three years.
2. This Agreement shall be extended for successive terms of three years if neither Contracting Party notifies the other of its intent to terminate this Agreement at least thirty (30) days before the end of a term.
3. If either Contracting Party does not have domestic legal authority to carry out its obligations under this Agreement, either Contracting Party may suspend application of this Agreement, or, with the agreement of the other Contracting Party, any part of this Agreement. In that event, the Parties will seek, to the fullest extent practicable in accordance with domestic law, to minimize unfavorable effects on existing trade relations between the two countries.
4. The Contracting Parties agree to consult at the request of either Contracting Party to review the operation of this Agreement and other relevant aspects of the relations between the two Parties.
In witness whereof, the authorized representatives of the Contracting Parties have signed this Agreement.
Done at Beijing in two original copies this 7th day of July, 1979, in English and Chinese, both texts being equally authentic.
For the Government of the United States of America
For the Government of the Peoples Republic of China
Leonard Woodcock Li Qiang
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